January 2018 25
All the behavior that human reflect are the result of the 100 billion neurons ( on an average make it 87 ) contributing in parallel as a single system in our brain. Now one must never think of that there is a center of our consciousness. Trust me there is None. Hence its very inappropriate to believe that there is 1 single unit inside us that gives us consciousness. If the opposite paradigm was true then let me put forward this question “If I separated the 2 half of your brain and put it in the empty skull of 2 different people then which of the 2 person would be you ?”. So now if there was a center or a single unit of consciousness then there should be 2 Me according to the questioned stated.
A particular behavior expressed by a human at any given point of time is actually a collective activation/interaction of separate sets of neurons in our brain at the same point of time. Your memories and your experiences with life should change your consciousness ( now ) by altering the fabrics of your perception of the real world. You would always agree to the fact that you were less conscious when you were a kid and are more self-aware as you grew to what you are today. Or to put it this way that you were having a different perception of your childhood life as to what you have now proves for itself that its the mere collection of memories and experiences that play much role instead of the not so well defined term consciousness.
People believe that the singularity existing in consciousness is also due to the existence of Free Will. Free-will is nothing but the process of decreasing contradiction between two or more disharmonious facts existing independently between different sets of activated neurons participating at the same moment.
In Artificial Intelligence
Since we have defined consciousness and free will in an abstract manner. Consciousness in AI would be ofcourse a collective and constructive coherent activation of neurons within the system that renders it intelligent. And to achieve that we will require not linear but massive parallel processors that compute not in a linear fashion where result of one function ( with a unique algorithm ) is transferred to another function at a higher level in the linear sequence but a large network of independent and sensitive artificial neurons.
Some of the fields of AI are:
- Machine Learning
- Neural Networks
- Knowledge Representation (KR)
- Automated Planning , Scheduling , Learning and Reasoning
- Natural language processing
- Bayesian network
- Genetic Programming
- Search and optimization
- Constraint satisfaction
As an example:
We can see how 40 years ago we used to dream of having computers playing chess with us. Apart from the Deep Blue chess playing computer developed by IBM today my mobile has a Chess game with “Expert CPU Level”.
So, as more and more powerful computers and intelligent algorithms are developed it’s inevitable that Artificial Intelligence will surpass human intelligence.
If I said Google is an example of AI there might be some people who will directly disagree but it depends at what degree of relation with AI an example is put forward.
Any software taking its foundations and having techniques of solving issues that are considered to related with AI can be an example of AI.
For instance: Search Engines ( Google , Bing , Yahoo Search ) all use NLP ( Natural Language Processing ) – Hence are examples of AI
Virtual Assistants – Siri, Syn Virtual Assistant, Google Now , S-Voice – Are developed by their respective companies for assisting users in their day to day task
Chatbots ( ALICE ) – And many others are examples of AI which are enabled to carry on with a conversation started by a user by retrieving answers from static database of pre-stored answers.
Software Examples: Examples of few famous AI software Include:
- Siri – by Apple
- Google Assistant – By Google
- S-Voice – by Samsung
- Cortana – by Microsoft
- Aisha – by Micromax
- Ultra Hal Assistant – by Zabaware
- A.L.I.C.E Chatbot – By Dr Richard Wallace
- Syn Virtual Assistant – Synthetic Intelligence Network
Note: none of the above are AI Complete or resemble any form of True AI
Artificial Intelligence went under what is called the “AI Winter” because of many factors.
- Exaggeration of future achievements
- False Predictions
- Underestimation of the problem handled
Researchers after achieving some of the objectives were too over confident about the future achievements and held lot of claims stating that AI would be completed in a decade or less.
The government after funding a lot of AI projects requested reports regarding its progress but researchers had finally realized that the problem wasn’t so easy as predicted and hence couldn’t achieve what they had claimed which includes failure in speech recognition , machine translation , expert systems and even neural network and this in-turn led to cutbacks in funds.
The list of languages thought to be best suited for research in artificial intelligence includes
- IPL ( Information Processing Language )
- Lisp ( LISt Processing )
- Prolog ( PROgramming in LOGic )
I personally Love Prolog – the maker Alain Colmerauer really believed that existing programming languages cannot handle the concept of AI with just objects, attributes and functions.
Although, today’s programming languages can be tweaked enough for AI projects very easily. Python is used a lot for AI. Not to mention the vast libraries developed for AI in Java. But if you are thinking of using a language for AI take the following into consideration
- Whether to use interpreted language or not – Interpreted languages are slow
Speed – Trust me, even earlier developments in AI were halted just because of speed limitations and till date I myself find speed being a great factor when developing anything in relation with AI
- Availability of Libraries/API
- Availability of proper IDE
- Platform Independence
And take my final words: Its not the source code that matters but its the algorithm that does. So choose any programming language that you are comfortable with because you can anytime shift to a new language and use the algorithms from the previous one.
What can one Not.
Intelligence has been ( for a long time ) part of something with flesh and soul
When one thinks of bringing this intelligence out and making it available to the public the possibilities are truly endless.
Since the definition itself involves the word “Automate” I must say that AI can be used to automate anything to everything. ( Taking certain constraints into consideration )
Lets take a Few examples as to what it can do and what its already doing :
You can have your Car with AI so that it gives the shortest route possible to your destination. ( Most modern Cars with GPS take advantage of AI for this )
- Cars can drive to your location when destination is specified
Schedules in schools or hospitals can be automated
- Today’s Robotics involves AI to recognize and most importantly to react when given a situation
- Complex Expert Systems can be developed using Artificial Intelligence which help in proper decision making . For example when symptoms of a disease are put forward – the Expert System can help decided what disease the patient has
- Chatbots are simplest derivatives of Expert Systems ( mostly used to give responses when a particular pattern is matched against what user says ) involve AI . Today’s offline customer support systems use AI for such Question/Answering Systems.
- AI Assistants can help people on their desktop using natural language processing. Rough examples would be Eliza a female psychiatrist and Ultra Hal
- Artificial Intelligence is strongly applied in defense services , even in cases where critical strategies have to be developed
- Since AI involves some neural networking ( not always ) thus Image/Face/Character/Voice recognition is also a part of AI. Today your mobile after/while it takes a picture or even facebook , google+ , orkut and many other socializing sites help you tag pictures – Yes AI has helped these sites recognize the face(s) of people involved in the picture(s)
- The games you play , be it chess or any other game , with computers ( as opponent ) are actually AI entities that have been coded well enough to play with you and in most cases beat the user at “Expert Levels”
- AI can be ( and is being ) used in space exploration but not limited to just space exploration it can also be used to automate machines to perform field tasks and collect important information on their own
- AI is used to solve many problems today like planning , learning , reasoning which cannot be achieved through other methods
- Today’s Weather Forecast uses AI for weather prediction by feeding vast amount of information to underlining neural networks.
Theorem Solving in computer science uses AI at its core.
- Text to Speech conversion is done using Artificial Intelligence ( you might have already confronted this technology at its primitive stage while using MS Word )
- Design of Fault Tolerant System ( which corrects or modifies part of their system ) . Which for now is being applied is most hardware designs
- Information Retrieval or Text Summarization is achieved using AI. Online Surveys conducted apply AI to lead to fuzzy logic conclusions
- Today you will see Google Translators , Bing Translator ( whatever its called ) . They translate between languages using principles of AI
- Natural Language processing is also a major field of AI where the Human Language ( be it any ) is processed in order to enable Human Computer Interaction
- Artificial Intelligence helps find trend in Stock Market and also is used to analyse various part of financial information collected by Banks worldwide
- And yes if you googled this question and you reached here – You just made Google use AI for information retrieval.
Artificial Intelligence ( in one form or the other is being used every where ). The problem is when people think of the term AI they think of Autonomous Machines walking around , talking just like humans and doing humanly work.
Its not the case and to name a few uses :
- Cars use AI for finding shortest possible route to reach a destination.
Siri, Google Now , Aisha , and other AI assistants all have been results of AI. Which help users in their day to day life task.
- Face recognition , Voice Recognition and Character recognition uses AI techniques which in many scenarios involves the use of Neural Network
- AI is the core a prediction system and the daily weather broadcast uses a lot of neural networks to predict weather conditions based on data received from satellites
- Information Retrieval , Text Summarization and even Translation all have been made possible because of the advancement in AI Techniques.
- Expert Systems , used in disease symptom analysis, is a sub field of AI
- Today’s games make use of AI for decision making and simulation of humanly behavior
- Natural Language Processing is a growing field and has many applications including search engines like Google that are taking advantage of NLP
There is no need for me to elaborate “Wikipedia is your friend” but anyways.
The term Artificial Intelligence as coined by its creator John McCarthy ( An American Scientist ) defined it as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines.
The aim of AI is to develop machines that behave as if they were intelligent – John McCarthy
But the above raises questions as to what is intelligence so the accepted definition for Artificial Intelligence ( In my point of view) is by Elaine Rich
According to Elaine Rich – Artificial Intelligence is the study of making computers do things at which , at the moment , people are better.
The best part of this definition is that it will always hold till True AI is achieved and that is why I stick with it.
Alan Mathison Turing developed the Turing test which till date is used to test if a machine is intelligent or not.
Artificial Intelligence has many fields taking its foundation from AI
To name a few:
- Machine Learning
- Neural Networks
- Natural Language Processing
- Automated Planning , Scheduling and Reasoning
- Knowledge Representation
- Voice , Face , Object , Character Recognition
- Neural Networks
And a lot more.
Many Programming languages having been developed since the day the term AI was defined.
These include languages like IPL ( Information Processing Language , Lisp ( List Processing – Developed by the Founder himself ), Prolog ( PROgramming in LOGic ) and Haskel
Today AI is being used in day to day life and many people are even unaware of its usage.whether it be Information Retrieval by Search Engines , GPS in Vehicles ,Expert Systems developed for symptom analysis , Chatbots , Weather Prediction Systems , High-End games and Virtual Assistants like Siri , Google Now , S-Voice.
Branches of Artificial Intelligence:
Over the years of AI development – The branches including AI as its foundation have bloated a lot but to name 5 of them:
- Learning,Planning and Reasoning in Machines
- Genetic Programming
- Pattern , Object , Character , Voice – Recognition
- Knowledge Representation
Extremely a Good question.
Since its “IS” Artificial Intelligence safe ? Instead of “How” safe is Artificial Intelligence. I think the answer should be short as its only requires “YES or NO” answer.
I would say NO as the answer if and only if the machine/entity is given Final Decision over any decision making process.
I would refer to a very simple example ( extremely simple in terms )
Lets say we added AI to your Email Services where the AI system will decided which email is to be deleted from your Inbox ( not Trash ) after a time interval that sets the system to believe that the Email is no longer useful.
After 30 days of an Email being in your Inbox – the email is deleted but what if it was an Email of great importance to you ? Yes if and only if the final decision of “Deleting” was given to you when the system decided that it should be deleted – then the system would considered Safe but if the AI system had the final decision of choosing “the deletion” process without your concise then you can always consider the system to be unsafe.
The above is a very simple example in its entirety but any process ( of great importance ) that requires human decision making should be left to humans in the end or should ( in many cases ) involve human confirmation.